What happened to urban populations in Northern Europe after the 100 Years war and the end of the
Population began to grow again and many cities grew rapidly. Urban merchants became wealthy enough to sponsor artists, first in Flanders and then in other parts of Northern Europe. Monarchs also sponsored the arts.
How did Italy contrast with England and France at the time?
While Italy was divided into city-states, England and France had strong monarchs.
Artistic Ideas Spread
Why did Italian Artists leave Italy for other parts of Europe?
What did they bring with them?
How else did the Renaissance spread?
Many Italian artists and writers fled to Northern Europe for a safer life when a French king launched an invasion of Italy. They took their styles and techniques with them.
Also, Northern European artists who studied in Italy carried Renaissance ideas back to their homes.
What types or works did Albrecht Durer create?
Durer, a German artist, produced woodcuts and engravings. His work emphasized realism and portrayed religious subjects, classical myths and landscapes.
How did Jan van Eyck influence Renaissance painting?
He used the newly developed oil paints to paint layer upon layer and create a variety of subtle colors. Oil painting became popular and spread to Italy.
His paintings provided information about peasant life. His work portrayed large numbers of people at everyday scenes such as weddings, dances and harvests.
Northern Writers try to Reform Society
How were the northern humanists critical of the Christian Church?
What did this lead to?
What was their focus?
They criticized the Christian church for not inspiring people to live Christian lives. Their criticism led to a movement known as Christian humanism. Their focus was to reform society, particularly the education of girls.
What did Thomas More write and what was it about?
What language did he write in?
He wrote a book called Utopia in Latin. The book was about an imaginary land where greed, corruption and war have been eliminated and there was little use for money. He was trying to show a better model of society.
What were the differences in educational access for boys and girls in Europe in the renaissance?
Who was Christine de Pizan?
Overall, most people in Europe could not read or write. Families who could afford schooling usually just sent their sons.
Christine de Pizan spoke out against this practice of not educating girls. She was highly educated and was one of the first women to earn a living as a writer.
For whom is the Elizabethan Age named?
Would she have been considered a Renaissance Woman? Why or why not?
After Queen Elizabeth I, who reigned from 1558-1603.
Yes she would have been called a Renaissance Woman because she was well educated, spoke French, Italian, Latin and Greek, and wrote poetry and music. She supported English art and literature.
Considered by many the greatest playwright ever, who was William Shakespeare and how did his actions fit the Renaissance?
What are some of his works?
Shakespeare: most famous writer of the Elizabethan Age; born in little town near London. He loved the classics and used them for inspiration and plots. Was a master of using English language and understanding how people behave. His plays often show human flaws.
Most famous plays: Hamlet, Macbeth, Othello, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, The Taming of the Shrew.
Who invented the printing press? Where and when?
How did this help to make books more available?
Johann Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany, around 1440.
The printing press made it possible to produce books quickly and cheaply.
The Legacy of the Renaissance
In what ways did the Renaissance change art?
Art drew on techniques, styles of classical Greece and Rome.
Paintings of people, nature more realistic
Artists created works that were secular, as well as religious
Writers began to use their native language (vernacular)
The arts praised individual achievement.
In what ways did the Renaissance change society?
Printing made more information available and cheap enough for society at large
More available books led to increased desire in reading and learning
Published accounts of new discoveries, maps, charts led to further discoveries in variety of fields
Published legal proceedings helped people understand their rights better
Christian humanists efforts to reform society changed opinions about how life should be lived.
People began to question political structures and religious practices